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Recursos Bibliogràfics

Títol: The role of defense industry in innovation and the development of dual-use technology
Autor: Hwang DJ
Volum: 8
Pàgines: 153
Any: 1996
Codi ISBN/ISSN: 1016-3271
Tipus de document: Article
Paraules clau: spin-off,
Idioma: Anglès
Resum: This paper analyzes how much and in what way South Korea´s defense industry has contributed to civilian industry and commercial technology, and reviews the role of defense industry in the development of dual-use technology.Effective spin-off requires a variety of mechanisms for the diffusion of military technology to the commercial sector; the civilian sector must be equipped and motivated to search out, assimilate and apply the knowledge; and civilian firms must have incentives to invest effort and resources in the commercialization of defense technology. These conditions did not exist in Korea during the 1970s. Nevertheless, even in the absence of these conditions for purposeful spin-off; certain spin-off effects did take place. Since defense and heavy/chemical industries were both being developed by President Park from a minimal base in 1970, spin-off was not initially achievable, although some synergies were possible. Park´s objective was to accelerate Korea´s self-sufficiency in defense weaponry, using the facilities of civil industry. If there was cross-sectoral technology flow, it was more likely to be from civil to military ´´spin-on.´´ However, his emphasis was on specific weapons production, not on the base science and technology from which future systems might be developed.Some of these indirect spin-off effects are shown in this paper. The most important contribution of the military technology investment of the 1970s was the experience gained by scientific and engineering manpower, both in ADD and in KIST. In the early 1980s, many of the project managers who gained their experience in ADD found their way into commercial industry and played crucial roles in the development and commercialization of R&D.Given the dependence on the much larger national investment in science and technology to support the growth of the civil economy, Korea cannot rely on the Ministry of National Defense to create and carry out the defense industrial policy unilaterally. The cooperative efforts of the Ministry of National Defense, the Ministry of Finance and Economy, and the three S&T Ministries of Science and Technology, Trade Industry and Energy, and Information and Communications are required and must be coordinated. The government should create a new institution that can plan and coordinate the connection between domestic defense activity, civilian industry, and the government´s many institutions for generation and diffusion of technology. This new institution should report directly to the ROK president, for efficient control and policy coordination. This body might be called the ´´National Planning Board for Science and Technology.´´ The current situation, in which the MND is attempting to respond to the constraints of post-Cold War military budgets without a comprehensive policy for basing Korean defense industrial base firmly on the rapidly growing national capabilities in S&T is unlikely to provide the nation with either an effective, affordable defense, or make its appropriate contribution to the nation´s maturity as a leading innovator in both civil and military technology. A dual-use R&D strategy, coordinated at the highest level of government could resolve this situation.
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